X-RAY OPTICAL SYSTEMS, INC.
X-ray fluorescence (XRF) is a powerful, nondestructive, rapid technique for elemental analysis in a wide variety of materials. There are nine elements regulated for their toxic effects world-wide, namely, Chromium (Cr), Arsenic(As), Selenium(Se), Bromine(Br), Cadmium(Cd), Antimony(Sb), Barium(Ba), Mercury(Hg), and Lead(pb). These elements can present in the bulk and the surface coating of consumer products. Among these elements, Cd and Sb are the two most difficult elements for XRF analysis due to their relatively higher photon energy compared to other elements. Although the analysis of all nine elements at ppm level in bulk material is effective, the detection of Cd and Sb in coatings has proven to be very difficult for XRF based methods. The detection of Cd and Sb in sub-ppm level in homogenous material is almost impossible. The only available testing method is ICP base methods, which is destructive and can only be limited to the lab use. In this project, XOS will develop X-ray optics for Cd and Sb detection that allow measurements to meet or exceed the regulated levels. The proposed optics are based on extending the capabilities of our successful, commercially available monochromatic optics and doubly-curved crystal (DCC) optics to higher energy ranges than are currently possible. Thus, they will retain the high-sensitivity and low-background advantages of the current DCC optics. The optics will be designed, developed, tested, and validated in the proposed project. The proposed new optics for Cd and Sb will be incredibly valuable to epidemiological studies, occupational exposure monitoring, and medical treatment teams, as well as manufacturers by using the optics in an XRF instrument which is accurate, reliable, nondestructive, simple-to-use, inexpensive, and compact. Such an optic-enabled instrument would have a positive impact on public health by rapidly identifying the source and level of risks, screening for toxicity, assessing levels in patients with related diseases (e.g., pulmonary or kidney disease), monitoring patients undergoing chelation therapy, conducting a heavy metal screen for people with an occupational exposure risk, and helping manufacturers and farmers eliminate these toxins. Further, the in-vitro detection of these trace metals could be compared to existing data sets in wider exposure studies such as the Genes, Environment and Health Initiative (GEI). This significantly increases the usefulness and marketability of the instrument. Because of the broad commercial applications, this will enable the production of lower-cost instruments for medical, environmental, and occupational exposure applications. Society will benefit from improved knowledge of the role of these metals which are linked to many respiratory, cardiovascular, renal, gastrointestinal, hematological, and musculoskeletal diseases (DHHS 1992, 1999). Use in bone, renal, heart, liver, etc. studies of other medical pathologies and in other fields such as forensic, atmospheric, geological, agricultural, chemical, pharmaceutical etc. will, over time, greatly broaden the medical, scientific, industrial, and, therefore, societal benefits.
The overall objective of the project is:
1) Develop an innovative x-ray optical element able to focus high energy x-rays
2) Demonstrate this type of x-ray optic can provide high intensity beam of 35-40 keV for Cd and Sb analysis
3) Demonstrate the feasibility for sub ppm detection of Cd and Sb using the prototype optic.
The tasks of this project are:
1) Design a layered DCC (LDCC) optic for 35 keV:
2) Fabrication and characterization of LDCC
3) Selection a source and integrate with a prototype optic
4) Feasibility demonstration for low level Cd and Sb analysis
5) Final report
The final deliverable of the project is a high energy x-ray optics integrated to an x-ray tube for Cd and Sb analysis.